If we need DC power supply for circuits we choose stepdown transformer based Rectifier circuit, It may give constant DC voltage under Regulator ICs but when the current fluctuations occurs at Input Power Source then the DC output supply will also gets affected.
To get rid of this drawback in traditional DC power supply method engineers, electronic designers are go with SMPS circuit. You may heard the name SMPS (Switched Mode Power Supply), It gives good constant DC output with considerably constant output current.
This page contains a simple smps circuit which is capable of producing 12 volt DC with 1 Amps current rating, and this circuit contains few easily available components, it may help you to design your own smps for your electronics projects.
SMPS Block Diagram
Before going to circuit diagram it is necessary to understand the operation of SMPS. This block diagram represents typical SMPS inner blocks.
We give high voltage AC Input and low frequency which is available on power outlet, the first stage of SMPS is Rectifier and filter hence the high AC becomes High Voltage DC from this operation we eliminate high spikes and surge, High voltage DC is controlled by High Frequency switching device (50KHz-120KHz) vary depends on design this switching block samples the high voltage DC with feed back path reference.
The flyback or tiny ferrite core transformer step down the voltage as required depends on design, then the second stage is Rectifier and filter section, it gives Rectified constant DC output Voltage without current fluctuations.
Some portion of output is taken as feedback signal and this signal compared with reference voltage and the error (if present) is amplified depends on the error PWM pulse changes its frequency hence the switching device regulates the output. So the minimum changes in output DC regulated instantly without affecting load.
Construction & working
Main three parts of this simple SMPS circuit are TNY267 tiny switch -II family IC from power integrations. It is enhanced, energy efficient and low power offline switching device.
TNY 267 Pinout
Secondly EE20 core flyback transformer as stepdown transformer which is made up of compact ferrite EE. Middle column includes a cross-section of 4.5 x 4.5 mm, air gap 0.4 mm. Primary carries 157 turns of wire diameter 0.15 mm. Secondary incorporates (for 12V output) 14 turns of wire 0.4 mm.
Finally Optocoupler in feedback path IC2 EL817, it is a photo transistor opto coupler, when the output DC voltage goes beyond the limit then this optocoupler gives signal to TNY 267 IC, and then the PWM output pulse gets changers accordingly.
Use the components as specified and output will be 12V DC with 1 Amps current rating.
1. This circuit Involves in operating High voltage AC it is lethal, Handle with extreme care
2. Make the Flyback transformer as your requirement or get a ready made one.
3. If you are construct your own Flyback transformer, then check the operation of the device before fetch into circuit.
4. Again, All stages in SMPS circuit involved in operation of High voltage either AC or DC, Handle with extreme care and protections.